Kenya Aquatica

KCSAP Project

Dr. Christopher Aura
OFFLINE
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Dr. Christopher Aura

Dr. Aura has a PhD in Bio-resource and Environmental Science from Hokkaido University, Japan; an MSc. in Aquatic Sciences from a collaboration between Linkoping (Sweden) and Moi (Kenya) Universities; and a First Class Honours BSc. Degree in Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences from Moi University, Kenya. He has been working in the domain of aquatic sciences for a long time. He is a trained and certified Graduate student Lecturer and scientist under Hokkaido University (Japan) and University of California Berkely (USA) collaboration in March 18-22, 2013. He is trained as a Senior Manager (Senior Management Course) in Kenya School of Government, Mombasa.

Dr. Aura was awarded an African Union-World Academy of Sciences Award (AU-TWAS) as best Young Scientist (below 40 years) in Life and Earth Sciences in 2012. He has also attained 3 international diplomas in (i) International Environmental Leadership and Policy, (ii) Inter-departmental graduate studies in Sustainability Sciences, and (iii) Sustainability Science Consortium, as well as completed and been awarded certificate as an Environmental Policy and Sustainability Leader. He was the Chairman of Kenya Wetland Stakeholders Draft and Regulations Review in 2017-18 for riparian lands’ regulations.

He is a member of Editorial Board of International Journal of Tropical Hydrobiology and Fisheries (IJTHF) http://ijthf.com/editorial-board/ and External Examiner in number of postgraduate graduation theses. He has carried out more than 25 Research projects. He has published more than 75 papers, 9 books and book chapters in SCI-indexed journals of aquatic sciences research. He is stationed in KMFRI Kisumu, Kenya and currently acting Director, Freshwater Systems Research.

KMFRI Kisumu
Freshwater Systems Research
Bio-resource and Environmental Science
Remote Sensing and GIS, Modeling & Projections, Environmental & Aquatic Sciences, Advanced Oceanography & Limnology, Climate Change Scenarios, Fisheries, Aquaculture, Socio-economics, Sustainability Sciences, Ecology, Data Analysis
...
aura.mulanda@gmail.com, auramulanda@yahoo.com
  • PhD in Bio-resource and Environmental Science from Hokkaido University, Japan
  • MSc. in Aquatic Sciences from a collaboration between Linkoping (Sweden) and Moi (Kenya) Universities;
  • BSc. Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences from Moi University

  • Aura, M.C., Nyamweya, C., Njiru, J.M., Omondi, R., Manyala, J., Musa, S., Owiti, H., Guya, F., Ongore, C., Ogari, Z., Mwamburi, J. (2021). Using the Multi-metric Index of Biotic Integrity (MMIBI) methodological approach to determine the major river catchment that pollutes a lake the most. Aquatic Ecosystem health & management 24(1), 12–20. https://doi.org/10.14321/aehm.024.01.04.
  • Okronipa, H., Bageant, E.  Mojica, L., Owiti, H., Otuo, P., Obuya, J., Olela, P., Ochieng, J., Aura C., Fiorella, K., (2021). Household Food Insecurity and Dietary Diversity Among Kenyan Households During the COVID-19 Pandemic. Current Developments in Nutrition, Vol 5(2), Pp 241. doi.org/10.1093/cdn/nzab029_042
  • May, L., Aura, M.C., Becker, V., Briddon, C.L., Carvalho, L.R., Dobel, A.J.,  Jamwal, P., Kamphuis, B., Marinho, M.M., McGowan, S., Nyandini, S., Nyamweya, C., Ongore, C., Sarma, S.S., Wisharti, M.J., (2021). Getting into hot water: Water quality in tropical lakes in relation to their utilization. Earth and Environmental Science 789, 012021. https://iopscience.iop.org/issue/1755-1315/789/1.
  • Aura, M.C., Musa, S., Nyamweya, C., Ogari, Z., Njiru, J.M., Hamilton, S., May, L. (2021). A GIS-based approach to delineating the areas of a lake that are suitable for cage fish culture. Journal of Lakes and Reservoirs: Science, Policy and Management for Sustainable Use 26, e12357. https://doi.org/10.1111/lre.12357.
  • Mwainge, V.M., Ogwai, C., Aura, M.C., Mutie, A., Ombwa, V., Nyaboke, H., Oyier, K.N., Nyaundi, J. (2021). An overview of fish disease and parasite occurrence in the cage culture of Oreochromis niloticus: a case study in Lake Victoria, Kenya. Aquatic Ecosystem Health & Management, 24(1): 43–55. https://doi.org/10.14321/aehm.024.01.08.
  • Musa, S., Aura, M.C., Okechi, J.K. (2021). Economic analysis of tilapia cage culture in Lake Victoria using different cage volumes. Journal of Applied Aquaculture. https://doi.org/10.1080/10454438.2021.1884632.
  • Njiru, J.M., Omukoto, J.O., Kimani, E.N., Aura, M.C., Van der Knaap, M. (2021). Kenya marine fisheries: The next frontier for economic growth? Aquatic Ecosystem health & management 24(1), 98-105. https://doi.org/10.14321/aehm.024.01.04.
  • Fiorella, K., Bageant, E., Mojica, L., Obuya, J.A., Ochieng, J., Outo, P.W., Onyango, H.O., Aura, M.C., Okronipa, H. (2021). Small-scale fishing households amid COVID-19: the case of Lake Victoria, Kenya. Fisheries Research 237, 105856.
  • Aura, M.C., Nyamweya, C.S., Owiti, H., Odoli, C., Musa, S., Njiru, J.M., Nyakeya, K., Masese, F. (2021). Citizen science for bio-indication: development of a community-based index of ecosystem integrity for assessing the status of Afrotropical riverine ecosystems. Front. Water 2:609215. https://doi.org/10.3389/frwa.2020.609215.
  • Aura, M.C., Okeyo, R. (2020). Chapter 5. The Enhanced Fish Market Information Service: Improving fish markets using ICTs, 44-50pp. In: Alexander Tilley and Matthew Roscher. FAO and WorldFish. 2020. Information and communication technologies for small-scale fisheries (ICT4SSF) - A handbook for fisheries stakeholders. In support of the implementation of the Voluntary Guidelines for Securing Sustainable Small-Scale Fisheries in the Context of Food Security and Poverty Eradication. Published by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and WorldFish, Bangkok. https://doi.org/10.4060/cb2030en.
  • Kobingi, N., Chemoiwa, E., Nyamora, J., Odoli, C., Moraa, Z., Mbaru, E., Masese, F., Aura, M.C., Nyamweya, C., Njiru, J., Nyakwama, R., Basweti, E. (2020). Endemic Lake Baringo Oreochromis niloticus fishery on verge of collapse: Review of causes and strategies directed to its recovery, conservation and management for sustainable exploitation. Lakes & Reservoirs: Science, Policy and Management for Sustainable Use, http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/lre.12344
  • Aura, M.C., Nyamweya, C., Odoli, Owiti, H., Njiru, J.M., Outo, P., Waithaka, E., Malala, J. (2020). Consequences of calamities and their management: the case of COVID-19 pandemic and flooding on inland capture fisheries in Kenya. J. of Great Lakes Research 46: 1767-1775.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jglr.2020.09.007.
  • Aura, M.C., Odoli, C., Nyamweya, C., Njiru, J.M., Musa, S., Miruka, J.B., Owili, M.O., Omondi, R., Raburu, P., Mwamburi, J., Ogari, Z., Mbaru, E. (2020). Application of phytoplankton community structure in the ranking of major riverine catchments that influence pollution status of a lake basin. Lakes & Reservoirs: Science, Policy and Management for Sustainable Use 25: 3-17. https://doi.org/10.1111/lre.12307.
  • Nyamweya, C.S., Natugonza, V., Taabu-munyaho, A., Aura, M.C., Njiru, M., Ongore, C., Mangeni-, R., Kashindye, B.B., Odoli, C.O., Kayanda, R. (2020). A century of change?: Induced revolution of Lake Victoria fisheries and ecology. Fisheries Research 230-105564. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fishres.2020.105564.
  • Aura, M.C., Nyamweya, C.S., Owili, M., Gichuru, N., Kundu, R., Njiru, J.M., Ntiba, M.J. (2020). Checking the pulse of the major commercial fisheries of Lake Victoria Kenya, for sustainable management. Fish Manag Ecol. 27:314–324. https://doi.org/10.1111/fme.12414.
  • Waithaka, E., Boera, P., Obegi, B., Mutie, A., Morara, G., Loki, P., Nyamweya, C., Aura, M.C., Outa, N.O. (2020). The Impacts of Co-Management towards sustainable development and utilization of fisheries resources in Lake Naivasha, Kenya. Journal of Poultry, Fishery & Wildlife Sciences 8(1), 209.
  • Odoli, C., Owiti, H., Kobingi, N., Obiero, M., Ogari, Z., Mugo, J., Nyamweya, C., Aura, M.C. (2019). Post-harvest interventions in small-scale fisheries: A boon or a bane to food and nutritional security in Kenya? Journal of Food Security 11: 855-868. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12571-019-00950-x.
  • Musinguzi, L., Lugya, J., Rwezawula, P., Kamya, A., Nuwahereza, C., Halafo, J., Kamondo, S., Njaya, F., Aura, M.C., Shoko, A.P., Osinde, R., Natugonza, N., Ogutu-Ohwayo, R. (2019). The extent of cage aquaculture, adherence to best practices and reflections for sustainable aquaculture on African inland waters. Journal of Great Lakes Research. https://doi:10.1016/j.jglr.2019.09.011. 
  • Hamilton, S.E., Gallo, S.M., Krach, N, Nyamweya, C.S., Okechi, J.K., Aura, M.C., Ogari, Z., Roberts, P., Kaufman, L. (2020). The use of unmanned aircraft systems and high-resolution satellite imagery to monitor tilapia fish-cage aquaculture expansion in Lake Victoria, Kenya. Bulletin of Marine Science, Bull Mar Sci. 96(1): 71–93. https://doi.org/10.5343/bms.2019.0063.
  • Aura, M.C., Nyamweya, C.S., Njiru, J.M., Odoli, C., Musa, S., Ogari, Z., Abila, R., Okeyo, R., Oketch, R., (2019). Using fish landing sites and markets information towards quantification of the blue economy to enhance fisheries management. Fish. Manag. Ecol. 26: 141–152.
  • Aura, M.C., Nyamweya, C., Njiru, J.M., Musa, S., Ogari, Z., Wakwabi, E. (2019). Exploring the demarcation requirements of fish breeding sites to balance the management and conservation needs of the lake ecosystem. Fisheries Management and Ecology 26: 451–459.
  • Bironga, C. H., Aura, C. M., Njiru, J. (2019). Ovarian Development of the penaeid shrimp Penaeus indicus (Decapoda): A case for the Indian Ocean Coastal waters of Kilifi. Fisheries and Aquaculture Journal  10:1 DOI: 10.4172/2150-3508.
  • Njiru, J.M., Aura, M.C., Okechi, J.K. (2019). Cage fish culture in Lake Victoria: A boon or a disaster in waiting? Fish Manag Ecol. 26: 426–434.
  • Kimani, E.N. Aura, M.C., Okemwa, G. (eds). (2018). The Status of Kenya Fisheries: Towards the sustainable use of renewable aquatic resources for economic development. Kenya Marine and Fisheries Research Institute (KMFRI), Fisheries Book. Kenya. 177 pp.
  • Ongore, C., Aura, M.C., Ogari, Z., Njiru, J.M., Nyamweya, C. (2018). Spatial-temporal dynamics of water hyacinth, Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.), other macrophytes and their impact onfisheries in Lake Victoria, Kenya. Journal of Great Lakes Research, 44(6): 1273-1280 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jglr.2018.10.001.
  • Mwamburi J, Yongo E, Aura M.C., Babu MJ, Basweti MG, Gichuru, N.N., Guya, F., Nyaboke, H., Nyamweya, C., Nyaundi, K.J, Odoli, C.O., C. O., Ogwai, A.C., Okechi, J., Ombwa, V.,  Omwega, R., Ongore, C., Owili, M., Owiti., H., Wawiye, I. P. (2018) Balancing Community needs and Resource Protection: The Case of Lake Kanyaboli, Kenya. J Biodivers Endanger Species 2018, 6:2; DOI: 10.4172/2332-2543.1000215.
  • Nyamweya, C., Aura, M.C., Ongore, C., Werimo, K., Owili, M., Olilo, C., Yongo, E. (2018). The State of Lake Victoria Fisheries, Kenya. In E. Kimani, C. Aura, & G. Okemwa (Eds.), The Status of Kenya Fisheries: Towards the sustainable use of renewable aquatic resources for economic development (pp. 90–97). Mombasa: Kenya Marine and Fisheries Research Institute.
  • Muli, J., Odoli, C., Aura, C., Nyakwama, R., Yongo, E., Werimo, K., & Nyamweya, C. (2018). The State of Lake Baringo Fisheries. In E. Kimani, C. Aura, & G. Okemwa (Eds.), The Status of Kenya Fisheries: Towards the sustainable use of renewable aquatic resources for economic development (pp. 111–116). Mombasa: Kenya Marine and Fisheries Research Institute.
  • Hassan, F.A., Ong’ayo, H.A., Osore, M.K., Morara, G.N., Aura, M.C. (2018). Assessment of Beneficiary Satisfaction with Community Based Solid Waste Management Service. A case of Okoa Maisha Project in Mnarani Village, Kilifi County, Kenya. International Journal of Scientific Research and Management (IJSRM) 6(3), FE-2018-08-18. doi: 10.18535/ijsrm/v6i3.fe01.
  • Aura, M.C., Musa, S., Yongo, E., Okechi, J., Njiru, J.M., Ogari, Z., Wanyama, R., Charo-Harrison, H., Mbugua, H., Kidera, S., Ombwa, V., Abwao, J. (2018). Integration of mapping and socio-economic status of cage culture: Towards balancing lake-use and culture fisheries in Lake Victoria, Kenya. Aquaculture Research 49(1): 532-545. https://doi.org/10.1111/are.13484.
  • Hassan, F.A., Ong’ayo, H.A., Osore, M.K., Morara, G.N., Aura, M.C. (2017). Effect of Community Participation in Access to Social Services: A Case Study of Hazina Ya Maendeleo Ya Pwani Approach in Coastal Kenya. Open journal of social sciences (IF=1.51) 5, 160-180. https://doi.org/10.4236/jss.2017.511012.
  • Kundu, R., Aura, C. M., Nyamweya, C., Agembe, S., Sitoki, L., Lung'ayia, H. B. O., Ongore, C., Ogari, Z. Werimo, K. (2017), Changes in pollution indicators in Lake Victoria, Kenya and their implications for lake and catchment management. Lakes Reserv. Res. Manage. 22: 199–214. doi:10.1111/lre.1218.
  • Aura, C. M., Musa, S., Odoli, C. O., Nyamweya, S. C., Njiru, J. M., Wanyama, R., (eds). (2017). A technical manual on the best management practices for cage fish farming in Lake Victoria, Kenya. Kenya Marine and Fisheries Research Institute, Kenya. Book Published by KMFRI and printed by Kenya Literature Bureau. ISBN: 978-9966-107-87-9.
  • Mwaura, J.M., Umezawa, Y., Furaha, J., Kimeli, A., Kamau, J. Aura, C.M. (2017). Spatial variability of scleractinian coral bleaching and mortality induced by the 2010 ENSO, between northern and southern reefs, Kenya. Coastal Marine Science 40(1): 17-27.
  • Aura, M.C., Kimani, E.N., Musa, S., Kundu, R., Njiru, J.M. (2017). Spatio-temporal macroinvertebrate multi-index of biotic integrity (MMiBI) for a coastal river basin: a case study of River Tana, Kenya. Ecohydrology and Hydrobiology 17: 113-124.
  • Karama, K.S., Matshushita, Y., Kimani, E., Okemwa, G., Mwakiti, S., Aura, M.C., Ndegwa, S. (2017). Codend mesh size of beach seine nets influences fish species and size composition in Lamu, north coast, Kenya. Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science 16 (2): 79-80.
  • UNESCO-IOC (2017). Stories of Africa’s Ocean and Coasts: Volume 2: Kenya’s Coastal and Resources and Environment, Mwanyuma H., Odido M., Lamin A.R., and Mackongo L-A. (Eds). IOC Information Document, 1319. Njiru, J.M., Aura, M.C. Chapter 1: Life in the ocean, Book. 152pp.
  • Aura, C.M., Osore, M.K., Hassan, F., Musa, S., Morara, G., Mwikali, G. (2017) Engaging poor academic performers (PAP) in marine and coastal resource management: experiences from a mega-project capacity building initiative. Ocean and Coastal management 137: 34 – 42.
  • Musa, S., Aura, M.C., Kundu, R. (2017). Mapping the value chain for farmed fish and gender analysis along the aquaculture value chain in Kenya. In Aquaculture: Management, Challenges and Developments. NOVA Science Publishers, Inc. NewYork. https://www.novapublishers.com/catalog/product_info.php?products_id=59012
  • Musa, S. Aura, M.C., Kundu, R. (2017). Effects of protein, lipid, feeding levels and their interaction on growth, biological parameters and haematology of monosex Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.). In Aquaculture: Management, Challenges and Developments. NOVA Science Publishers, Inc. NewYork. https://www.novapublishers.com/catalog/product_info.php?products_id=59012
  • Aura, C.M., Musa, S., Osore, M.K., Kimani, E., Alati, V.M., Wambiji, N., Maina, G.W., Charo-Karisa, H. (2016/17). Quantification of Climate Change Implications using oyster suitability sites occurrence Model along the Kenya Coast. Journal of marine systems 165 (2017): 27-35.
  • Aura, C.M., Hassan, F., Osore, M.K., Musa, S., Morara, G., Uku, J., (2016). A comprehensive public-private partnership concept for resources sustainability from a mega-project management multi-level perspective. International Journal of Management and Sustainability 4(11): 218-236. DOI: 10.18488/journal.11/2015.4.11/11.11.218.236.
  • Aura, C. M., Saitoh, S-I., Liu, Y., Hirawake, T., Baba, K., Yoshida, T. (2016). Implications of marine environment change on Japanese scallop (Mizuhopecten yessoensis) aquaculture suitability: comparative study in Funka and Mutsu Bays, Japan. Aquaculture Research 47:2164-2182. doi:10.1111/are.12670.2015.
  • Fondo, E.N., Kimani, E.N., Munga, C.N., Aura, M.C., Okemwa, G., Agembe, S. (2015). A Review on Kenyan Fisheries Research: 1970-2009. Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science 13(2): 143 – 162.
  • Musa, S., Orina, P.S. Aura M.C., Kundu, R., Ogello, E.O., and Munguti, J.M. (2014). The effects of dietary levels of protein and greenhouse on growth, behavior and fecundity of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.) broodstock. International Journal of Science and Research 3(10):10.
  • Aura, M.C., Anam, R.O., Musa, S., Kimani, E.N. (2014). Length-Weight Relationship and Condition Factor (K constant) of Dentex Marocannus Valenciennes 1830 (Family Sparidae) at Malindi, Kenya. Western Indian Ocean J. Mar. Sci., 12(1): 79-83.
  • Musa, S., Aura, M.C., Kundu R. (2014). Wild-caught fish versus aquaculture fish products: a fish marketing concept for aquaculture quality improvement, a case study of Nyanza Region, Kenya. International Journal of Science and Research 3(9):7.
  • Ogello, E.O., Musa, S., Aura M.C., Abwao, J., Munguti, J.M. (2014). An Appraisal of the Feasibility of Tilapia Production in Ponds Using Biofloc Technology: A review. International Journal of Aquatic Sciences, 5(1):21-39.
  • Musa, S., Aura M.C., Ogello, E.O., Omondi, R., Charo-Karisa and Munguti, J.M. (2013). Haematological Response of African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus Burchell 1822) Fingerlings Exposed to Different Concentrations of Tobacco (Nicotiana tobaccum) Leaf Dust. ISRN Zoology, vol. 2013: ID 492613, 7 pages. http:dx.doi:10.1115/2013/492613.
  • Aura, M. C., Musa, S., Njiru, J., Ogello, E. O., Kundu, R. (2013). Fish-Restocking of Lakes in Kenya: Should solemnly be an Environmental Issue, 39-60pp. In: Adoyo, W. A. & Wangai, C. I. African Political, Social and Economic Issues: Kenya Political, Social and Environmental Issues.  NOVA Science Publishers, Inc. NewYork. ISBN: 978-1-62081-085-9.
  • Musa, S., Aura, C. M., Owiti, G., Nyonje, B., Orina, P., Charo-karisa, H. (2012). Fish Farming Enterprise Productivity Program (FFEPP) as an Impetus to Oreochromis niloticus (L.) Farming in Western Kenya: Lessons to Learn. African Journal of Agricultural Research 7(8): 1324-1330.
  • Musa, S., Aura M.C., Ngugi, C. C., Kundu, R. (2012). The Effect of Three Different Feed Types on Growth Performance and Survival of African Catfish Fry (Clarias gariepinus) Reared a Hatchery ISRN Zoology, vol. 2012: ID 861364, 6 pages. doi:10.5402/2012/861364.
  • Ogello, E., Omondi, R., Opiyo, M., Charro, H., Aura, C.M. (2012). Efficacy of tobacco waste to control the gastropod Melanoides tuberculatus (Muller) in freshwater fish ponds. Aquaculture Research, 43(10):1571-1576.
  • Njiru, M., Sitoki, L., Nyamweya, C.S., Jembe, T., Aura, M.C., Waithaka, E. and Masese, F. (2012). Habitat degradation and changes in Lake Victoria fisheries. In: Environmental Degradation: Causes, Issues and Management. NOVA Publishers, pp 1–34. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1440-1770.2007.00358.x.
  • Aura, M. C., Musa, S., Ogello, E. O., Otwoma, L. M., Wainaina, M., Kundu, R. (2011). Methane Emissions from Swampy and Riverine Coastal Wetlands: Influence of Open and Macrophyte Infested Areas. Lakes and Reservoirs: Research and Management, 16(4): 265-272.
  • Musa, S., Gichuki, J., Raburu, O.P., Aura, C.M. (2011). Risk Assessment for Organochlorines and Organophosphates Pesticide Residue in Water and Sediments from Lower Nyando/Sondu-Miriu River within Lake Victoria Basin, Kenya. Lakes and Reservoirs: Research & Management, 16(4): 273-280.
  • Aura, M. C., Munga, C. N., Kimani, E. N., Manyala, J.O., Musa, S. (2011). Length-Weight Relationships for Nine Deep Sea Species off the Kenyan Coast. PanAmerican Journal of Aquatic Sciences 6(2): 188-192.
  • Musa, S., Gichuki, J., Raburu, O.P., Aura, C.M. (2011). Organochlorine and Organophosphorus Pesticide Residues in Water and Sediment from Yala/Nzoia River within Lake Victoria Basin, Kenya. Journal of Ecology and the Natural Environment 3(12):392-399.
  • Aura, M. C., Raburu, O.P., Hermann, J. (2011). Macroinvertebrates’ Community Structure in Rivers Kipkaren and Sosiani, River Nzoia basin, Kenya. Journal of Ecology and the Natural Environment 3(2):39-46.
  • Aura, M. C., Raburu, P.O., Herrmann, J. (2010). A Preliminary Macroinvertebrate Index of Biotic Integrity for Bioassessment of the Kipkaren and Sosiani Rivers, Nzoia River Basin, Kenya. Journal of Lakes and Reservoirs: Research and Management 15:119-128.
  • Kundu, R., Aura, M. C., Muchiri, M., Njiru, M., Ojuok, J. E. (2010). Difficulties of Fishing at Lake Naivasha, Kenya: Is community participation in management the solution? Lakes and Reservoirs: Research and Management, 15:15-23. I was the Correspondence author.
  • Kalama, M.T., Manyala, J.O., Aura, M.C., Mbaru, K. E. (2010). Relation between Phytoplankton Abundance and Physico-chemical Characteristics of Chepkanga Dam, Eldoret, Kenya. Journal of Lakes and Reservoirs: Research and Management 15:111-118.
  • Okemwa, G., Kimani, E., Fondo, E., Agembe, S., Munga, C., Aura, M.C. (2009). Status of Artisanal Fishery at the Kenyan Coast: 2001-2008. Technical report-book. Kenya Marine and Fisheries Research Institute. 19pp.
  • Raburu P.O, Masese F.O., Aura, M. C. (2009). Macroinvertebrate Index of Biotic Integrity (M-IBI) for monitoring rivers in the upper catchment of Lake Victoria Basin, Kenya. Aquatic Ecosystem Health & Management 12 (2):197-205.